Chronologia / Chronology
by Eugeniusz Tomczak 1, Anita Szczepanek 2, Paweł Jarosz 2
1 – Independent researcher, Katowice, firstname.lastname@example.org; 2 – Instytut Archeologii i Etnologii PAN, Ośrodek Archeologii Gór i Wyżyn, ul. Sławkowska 17, 31-016 Kraków
In: E. Tomczak, A. Szczepanek, P. Jarosz 2021. Gogolin-Strzebniów, stanowisko 12. Cmentarzysko kultury łużyckiej na Wyżynie Śląskiej, Ocalone Dziedzictwo Archeologiczne 11, Pękowice: Stowarzyszenie Archeologów Terenowych „Stater”, Wydawnictwo Profil-Archeo, p. 101-104.
Summary: The cemetery of the Lusatian culture in Gogolin belongs to typical cemeteries of the Częstochowa-Gliwice subgroup of the Upper Silesia and Lesser Poland group dated to the end of the Bronze Age. It was probably established at the beginning of the HaB2–B3 period, so at times when quite a lot of cemeteries were established, some of which were still in use during the Hallstatt C period. The inhabitants of the Upper Silesian-Lesser Poland group maintained contacts with communities living in the area to the west of the Oder river, which are described as the Silesian group of the Lusatian culture. The influences of the Głubczyce subgroup of the Silesian group are particularly evident, which is manifested by numerous analogies in the sets of vessels and their decoration typical for areas on the left bank of the Oder. The relative chronology was verified by radiocarbon dating of bone samples from 4 graves. Calibration of the obtained dates allows dating the necropolis to the end of Period IV and Period V (HaB1-B3), with the time of its use narrowed down to the 10th century BC and the first half of the 9th century BC. The comparable age of the samples obtained from burnt and unburnt bones excludes the influence of cremation on the sample aging, defined as the “old wood effect”, i.e. the influence of carbon from the cremation pyre.
Summing up, it can be underlined that the population buried at the cemetery constitutes the westernmost branch of the Upper Silesia-Lesser Poland group, practising a bi-ritual form of burial rite and penetrating the Silesian Upland quite early. The community using this cemetery probably lived in a close vicinity. This is confirmed by analyses of strontium isotopes in samples of burnt bones or tooth enamel of selected deceased, which indicate their local origin in most cases. These people maintained relations with other communities inhabiting the areas located both to the east and west of the Oder valley in the Gogolin region. This is evidenced not only by the equipment of graves and the form of burial, but also by the presence of a non-local individual buried in grave 63, as was demonstrated by strontium isotope analysis. This female spent her childhood in the areas north or west of the Gogolin region. However, she was fully incorporated into the local community, as evidenced by the form of burial (inhumation grave) and typical grave goods. This is only a single signal, but it may indicate that funeral rituals were of local nature and did not emphasised foreign origin of individuals. The verification of such suggestions will be carried out by isotope studies of larger series from various cemeteries.