Planigrafia cmentarzyska i elementy obrządku pogrzebowego / The arrangement of graves and elements of the funeral rite
1 – Independent researcher, Katowice, firstname.lastname@example.org; 2 – Instytut Archeologii i Etnologii PAN, Ośrodek Archeologii Gór i Wyżyn, ul. Sławkowska 17, 31-016 Kraków
In: E. Tomczak, A. Szczepanek, P. Jarosz 2021. Gogolin-Strzebniów, stanowisko 12. Cmentarzysko kultury łużyckiej na Wyżynie Śląskiej, Ocalone Dziedzictwo Archeologiczne 11, Pękowice: Stowarzyszenie Archeologów Terenowych „Stater”, Wydawnictwo Profil-Archeo, p. 95-99.
Summary: The cemetery in Gogolin is one of the flat cemeteries with a biritual funeral rite typical for the Upper Silesian-Lesser Poland group of the Lusatian culture. In the north and south-west range of this group, the Częstochowa-Gliwice subgroup was distinguished. In the classic stage of this subgroup, i.e. at the end of the Bronze Age and at the beginning of the Hallstatt period, a distinctive feature of the funeral rites is the prevalence of cemeteries with more inhumations than cremations. The necropolis in Gogolin is the most southwestern site of this subgroup. Inhumation burials dominate at most biritual cemeteries, although there are also some where cremation graves prevail. It is worth emphasising the peripheral location of the cemetery within the Upper Silesian-Lesser Poland group, because the communities from the western bank of Oder river, representing the Silesian group of the Lusatian culture, practiced cremation burial rite exclusively.
At the analysed necropolis 71 graves were examined, including 38 inhumation and 29 cremation burials. The cremation graves varied from simple, small pits with concentrations of bones suggesting their original placement in an organic container, to graves imitating inhumation burials in respect of the grave pit size and furnishing. In three cases, the type of burial rite could not be established because the burials were almost completely destroyed.
Inhumation graves. In most of the graves the skeletons have not survived. The location of the skull in the northern part of the pit differs from the standard arrangement of the deceased in the Upper Silesian-Lesser Poland group at the end of the Bronze Age, which was with head to the south. However, examples of such location at the cemeteries of the Upper Silesian-Lesser Poland group were recorded at the sites in Opatów and Zbrojewsko. The furnishings of the inhumation graves consisted mainly of clay vessels. Only burial 56 was not equipped. The most common were sets typical for the cemeteries of the Upper Silesian-Lesser Poland group, consisting of a differing numbers of pots, bowls and scoops with mugs, goblets and vases less frequent. The arrangement of vessels in burial pits indicates that they were placed mainly at their ends, i.e. by the head or legs of the deceased. Bronze ornaments were found in eight graves. The small number of metal artefacts in inhumation graves was also noticed at other cemeteries of the Częstochowa-Gliwice subgroup dated to the end of the Bronze Age.
Cremation graves. Almost all cremation graves at the cemetery in Gogolin are urnless burials. Only one urn with cremation has been discovered, which is an exception at the cemeteries of the entire circle of the Urnfield complex. There were burials where the burned bones formed a compact clusters suggesting their original placement in an organic container, as well as graves with remains scattered over a larger space, imitating inhumation burials. Moreover, burials consisting of a cluster of burnt bones with vessels next to them were found.