Analiza materiałów (Source materials)
by Małgorzata Cieślak-Kopyt 1
1 – Muzeum im. Jacka Malczewskiego w Radomiu
In: M. Cieślak-Kopyt, D. Pogodzińska 2020. Żelazna Nowa, stanowisko 2. Cmentarzysko kultury przeworskiej z Zapilcza na południowym Mazowszu, Ocalone Dziedzictwo Archeologiczne 10, Radom – Pękowice: Muzeum im. J. Malczewskiego w Radomiu, Wydawnictwo Profil-Archeo, pp. 67-82.
Abstract: Due to the long lifespan of the cemetery, the pottery discovered in Żelazna Nowa is relatively diversified. Unfortunately, the majority of the graves have been partly damaged, and some have been completely destroyed. In many cases only grave bottoms were recorded, while the furnishings were scattered over a large area. Sometimes (e.g. in feature 56) one cannot be certain whether fragments of vessels uncovered in a grave pit indeed belonged to the burial urn. A few graves from the Younger Pre-Roman period were relatively well furnished in vessels, but the state of preservation rarely makes it possible to determine the actual number of vessels in particular graves. The same holds true with respect to Early Roman period pottery. Graves dated to this period often survived only in their bottom parts. Hand-made vessels prevail by far in the ceramic material. The only few wheel-made sherds were found in the cultural layer in the vicinity of the groove feature. Vessels used as burial urns were those representing Liana types II.2, II.3, and group III. The predominant vessel forms among Younger Pre-Roman period pottery were cups of Dąbrowska types I.2, 3, 4, 5, and 7, bowls II.13, and bulbous vessels. Roman period pottery is primarily represented by vessels of types II.2 and 3; group III; and small bowls of group VI.1 and 2. Some unique forms were identified as well, including a jug with a canal in feature 56 and a small bowl imitating glass vessels.
A total of 490 small finds (including those from the modern period) were discovered in the cemetery. Due to severe damage to the cemetery, only some of them have been recovered from features (204), while 181 small finds have been found outside the context of features. Surface surveys were performed several times in the site, and these produced another 105 small finds, most of them found in the western and northern parts of the cemetery. With 54 items discovered, brooches prevail among the small finds. They include four Late La Tène brooches of type N, fragments of A.II or mixed A.II/IV brooches; A.III brooches; a significant number of A.IV brooches, including a few specimens of A.67 and A.68, trumpet brooches, and derivatives of strongly profiled brooches; brooches of series A.V, including A.96, A.120, and A.137; fragments of A.VI brooches; A.VII brooches; a fragment of a Gallic brooch of Rih’s variant 2.2.4; a brooch of Riha’s variant 5.17.5; and a Norico-Pannonian brooch of type A.236.
Belt pieces included a clasp of type Kostrzewski 49, seven buckles (most of them of type D.1), two profiled group I variant 6 belt finials, and a set of belt fittings found inside the urn in grave 37, consisting of a buckle, a finial, and a ring. Ornaments are represented by fragments of a knotenring from feature 33, fragments of Kamieńczyk type bracelets and a bar bracelet, several appliques, among them a fragment of a silver plaque, and many fragments of melon beads and glass beads. Weapons are rare in the cemetery: surviving are primarily fragments of shield grips, rivets from
shield bosses (fts. 6 and 7), complete spearheads (fts. 41, 48, stray find), and fragments of spearhead sockets (ft. 41, stray find). The finds included two sets of two spearheads each, found in graves, and uncontexted finds of a sword scabbard chape and a spur. Tools and objects of everyday use are relatively well-represented: 19 knives, 8 awls, 1 awl-like tool, 2 needles, 16 clay spindle-whorls, 2 whetstones, a polishing plate, iron fittings of the box, chest locks, fragments of key (?), a massive rim fitting, 2 fragments of combs, 2 fragments of dice, a fragment of an E.139–144 glass vessel, and an immense number of unidentified artefacts made of bronze and iron.