Nieinwazyjne badania archeologiczne na stanowisku 2 w Żelaznej Nowej (Non-invasive archaeological research)
by Marcin Piotrowski 1, Patrycja Piotrowska 1
1 – Firma Archeologiczna „ArcheoFuture”
In: M. Cieślak-Kopyt, D. Pogodzińska 2020. Żelazna Nowa, stanowisko 2. Cmentarzysko kultury przeworskiej z Zapilcza na południowym Mazowszu, Ocalone Dziedzictwo Archeologiczne 10, Radom – Pękowice: Muzeum im. J. Malczewskiego w Radomiu, Wydawnictwo Profil-Archeo, p. 145-152.
Summary: Non-invasive archaeological research was carried within the complex of sites 2–3 in Żelazna Nowa, and the analysis of the results. The basic goal of the research was to determine the range of the necropolis in site 2, to reveal its topography, and to assess the state of its preservation. The research was performed using a non-invasive geophysical survey with the magnetic method. An additional objective was to map sites 2 and 3 and present them against a broader geographic background. The maps were created using numeric altitude data from laser scanning (LIDAR) and aerial photography. Site 2, the focus of the research, occupies a well-defined lentoid elevation stretching along the E-W axis, and it encompasses at least three distinct zones. The first zone is the necropolis in the western part of the site, confirmed by archaeological excavations. Geophysical research allows for concluding that the necropolis extended over an area larger than 1 ha. Its southern and eastern boundaries are discernible on the map of magnetic anomalies (Figs. 13.2–7). The second zone is a stretch of land to the east of the necropolis, distinguished by a distinct concentration of archaeological features. The third zone is an area where settlement features also occur, but in much lesser concentrations than in zone 2. Zones 2 and 3 (the eastern one) are distinguished by considerable numbers of artefacts, potsherds in particular, occurring on the surface. In addition, traces of hearths damaged by ploughing were recorded in zone 3 in the form of black spots of various sizes discernible from the level of the ground, and especially from the air (Fig. 13.8). A distinct concentration of features in zone 2 may stem from its transitional nature between the cemetery and the settlement, perhaps with the two partly overlapping at some stages of their development. However, the relatively clear results of the magnetic research only allow for preliminary interpretation of the identified features. The data need to be verified by archaeological excavations. The non-invasive research, especially the magnetic survey, should undoubtedly be extended. It is also worth taking aerial photographs again, in different weather conditions and especially at the time of year when the crops start to grow. This can be expected to reveal previously undetected features, in particular those of settlement nature.