Identyfikacja śladów użytkowania kamiennych i ceramicznych form odlewniczych z późnej epoki brązu / Identification of traces of use on Late Bronze Age stone and ceramic casting moulds
1 – AGH Akademia Górniczo-Hutnicza im. Stanisława Staszica w Krakowie, Wydział Odlewnictwa, ul. Reymonta 23 (pawilon D-8), 30-059 Kraków; 2 – Uniwersytet Jagielloński, Instytut Archeologii, ul. Gołębia 11, 31-007 Kraków
In: E. Tomczak, A. Szczepanek, P. Jarosz 2021. Gogolin-Strzebniów, stanowisko 12. Cmentarzysko kultury łużyckiej na Wyżynie Śląskiej, Ocalone Dziedzictwo Archeologiczne 11, Pękowice: Stowarzyszenie Archeologów Terenowych „Stater”, Wydawnictwo Profil-Archeo, p. 131-144.
Summary: A unique set of one- and two-piece casting moulds was found in a cremation burial (grave no. 24) discovered in a Late Bronze Age (900–800 BC) biritual cemetery of the Lusatian Culture in Gogolin-Strzebniów (Silesia), on the basis of which this grave was considered to be the burial of a bronze foundryman. Four two-piece moulds (two ceramic and two stone) and one ceramic one-piece mould were subjected to microscopic observations and spectral studies in order to identify potential traces of use, especially use in the production of casts. The results of the macroscopic observations and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) studies indicated that all of the moulds examined were used according to their function, i.e. for the production of copper alloy casts, before being deposited in the grave. The presence of metallic elements was higher in the stone moulds than in the ceramic ones, which is due to the nature of the material and its resistance to the influence of high temperature and physico-chemical factors. It was possible to identify specimens that were probably used longer (mould for sickles and rods – no. 97) or shorter (mould for rods – no. 24-7) before being deposited in the ground. This supports the hypothesis that a functional casting workshop instrumentarium was deposited in the grave inventory, rather than a set of moulds made specifically for funerary purposes. Interesting is the finding of a one-piece ceramic mould for rods (length ca. 13.5 cm), which were poured after setting the mould at an angle of 30–45 degrees. It confirms the local casting of bronze rods as semi-products for further distribution among the communities of the Lusatian culture in the Oder region.